Linux Tutorials

I am asked often “how to learn linux” and more often than not I just find myself saying “try it out” which is horrible. How can you “try it out” if you don’t even have a baseline of information about what is happening? The person would be forced to read many volumes of words just to get a grasp on what they want to learn.

This is a living document of my attempt to explain linux for new linux users. I am trying explain as if the user has zero background in unix/linux variants but has a willingness to learn. If you find discrepancies in what I have written please by all means contact me and I will address the mistakes.

The Command Line Interface

When people think about Linux/Unix they immediately are put off by the seemingly complicated command line interface. I mean, since the 1980’s we have become accustom to learning computers on a graphical user interface, where we can point a mouse and click on things. It isn’t that hard to understand the why this window of black text is so intimidating.

But, when you learn that basically computer programs have inputs, and outputs, and the shell is there to facilitate the inputs and outputs of programs to the human interacting with the interface, it all makes a lot of sense.

The Shell

When you are at a command line interface, you are actually running a program, called a shell. A shell is the primary interface between you as a user, and the computer. You provide the shell text as input, specifying programs to run and data to give to programs, and the programs give their output to the shell after running, which in turn the shell gives back to the user. Very simply put the shell is an interface by which you interact with the computer.

A very popular shell is Bash. Shells, being interpreters ( the shell interprets what the user wants to do, and then performs that interpretation) allow for various control-flow capabilities as well. Such control-flow capabilities include loops and conditionals.


So, we know now that we can run programs on a computer through the shell. We should talk a little bit about programs. Programs are, at a high level, a grouping of instructions for a CPU. The format of the instructions depends highly on the type of processor you have, but lets not get bogged down with that.

Programs being composed of instructions and data can be “executed” or “run” by the shell by the user telling the shell the location of the file which contains said instructions (the program file location)

For example, if I wanted to run a program called my-useful-program in the shell all I need to do is the following:

/path/to/my-useful-program # where /path/to/ is the directory location that my-useful-program is located

Programs can have the following needs:

  1. Programs potentially need stdin or Standard Input
  2. Programs potentially need command options
  3. Programs potentially need command arguments

In linux/unix variants input to programs is typically provided via [stdin][stdin] which means the program is handed a “file descriptor” by which the application can read (buffered) input to a program. This is a bit different than a graphical user interface in that inputs to programs can be outputs from other programs, which could form a chain, or pipeline of processing. For example:

cat file.txt | grep "something" # we "cat" a file and send that output to "grep"

Program command options typically come in the form of -flag and you can think of this as almost configuration for the command. This allows you to fine tune the program configuration to give you what you want, for example:

ls -alh # we are telling the ls command we want the a, l and h options configured

Programs can also need arguments which are text tokens that the program uses to do something. Typically this is used to specify files to perform operations on but could be for anything really, for example:

ls -alh *.txt # we are passing *.txt as a command argument to the ls command

With that basic understanding of what programs are, and what programs may or may not need, lets look at some very commonly used programs

Various Useful Programs

Here is a listing of useful programs that typically come standard on linux and unix variants, with a short description, and a link to the man or manual pages:

  1. man - Man is a manual for commands
    • Example:
    user@localhost ~]$ man ls
LS(1)                                 User Commands                                LS(1)

       ls - list directory contents

              ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...
  1. echo - Echo prints it’s arguments to the output stream
    • Example:
    user@localhost ~]$ echo "hello world"
    hello world
  • man echo
    1. cat - Output the contents of a file
  • Example:
    user@localhost ~]$ cat file.txt # file.txt contains "hello world"
    hello world
  • man cat
    1. grep - Search Input for an expression
  • Example:
    user@localhost ~]$ echo "hi there" | grep "hi"
    hi there
  • man grep
    1. ls - Print out the directories and files contained within the current working directory
  • Example:
    user@localhost ~]$ ls


  1. POSIX - Portable Operating System Interface. A group of standards for maintaining compatibility between operating systems (unix variants)
  2. bash - Bourne-Again SHell, a shell program that takes commands and executes said commands, an attempt at a POSIX compatible shell.
  3. stdin - Standard Input is a “file handle” that allows a program to take input
  4. stdout - Standard Input is a “file handle” that allows a program to write normal output to
  5. stderr - Standard Error is a “file handle” that allows a program to write errors to